Crisis situation theories
Keep stakeholders updated on the progression of recovery efforts including any corrective measures being taken and the progress of investigations.
How to use the model Once the levels of crisis responsibility and reputational threat have been determined, SCCT builds on communications professor William L. This might explain why decision-making often requires considerable expertise and knowledge.
Crisis situation theories
The tri-part view of crisis management serves as the organizing framework for this entry. Coombs, T. Post Crisis. An operational crisis can have an impact reputational image, but reputational crises do not have an impact on operations in a meaningful way [ 25 ]. The mediated crisis management efforts may blur the stakeholders groups about the facts. Injuries or deaths will result in financial and reputation loss while reputations have a financial impact on organizations. SCCT is audience-oriented theory and still developing [ 20 ]. Barton , Coombs a , and Fearn-Banks have noted how a CMP saves time during a crisis by pre-assigning some tasks, pre-collecting some information, and serving as a reference source. Barton, L. Reputation and financial concerns are considered after public safety has been remedied.
This is due to the complexity of the process of managing a crisis that needs quick and decisive decisions and emergency management planning, and execution [ 36 ]. Address the problem immediately.
Stages of crisis management
According to SCCT, the crisis manager assess the situation by asking the following questions: Can the organization be viewed as a victim of the event? Public Relations Quarterly, 39 1. Also an ineffective crisis communication can create a need for risk communication, issues management and reputation management as well [ 24 ]. Cooley, S. Gainey, B. There is important follow-up communication that is required. Contacts can be any group that can be affected by the crisis including employees, customers, and community members living near a facility. Organizational misdeed with no injuries: Stakeholders are deceived without injury. As Dowling , the Corporate Leadership Counsel , and the Business Roundtable observe, Intranets are an excellent way to keep employees updated, if the employees have ways to access the site. Heidarinejad, R. Since she has written many articles for e-zines and was a regular columnist for "Digital Coast Reporter" and "Developments Magazine. Hence, expressions of concern may be expected and provide little benefit when used but can inflict damage when not used. In the attempt to gather information for a newsworthy story, news media, and other journalists will collect their data from a variety of sources thereby causing the proliferation of rumors and other misinformation to spread quickly. Often serving as the buffer, and the designated spokesperson of information, the role of Public Relations, as it relates to crisis communications has expanded as the prevalence of crises have become more common in our society. His article began to lay out a theory-based approach to matching the reputation repair strategies to the crisis situation.
Coombs pioneered the application of attribution theory to crisis management in the public relations literature. As most books on crisis management note, those lessons are then integrated into the pre-crisis and crisis response phases.
Gibson argues that true crisis is usually the result of a management failure to respond appropriately to an issue, emergency or accident that requires a timely response and communication [ 22 ]. An issue can create a crisis and at the same time, a crisis can create an issue to deal with.
It is through these activities that teams will discover ways in which organizations can make improvements on the prevention, preparation, and response resulting from a crisis which are critical to the effective operations within an organization.
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