Using the issue of reductionism evaluate
Social Psychology looks at the behavior of individuals in a social context. Breaking complex behaviours into small constituent parts means that they can be scientifically tested and over time explanations based on scientific evidence will emerge.
Thus, while reductionism is inclined to search for the one right answer, holism tries to understand a phenomenon by gaining as many perspectives on it as possible and then synthesizing those perspectives into a more complete understanding. Reductionism is a form of determinism.
Such an approach might usefully explain the success of drug therapies in treating the disorder; why people with depression think differently about themselves and the world; and why depression occurs more frequently in particular populations.
Reductionism in child psychology
However, this was in lab conditions. Holistic accounts of the world look for how an entity forms part of some larger whole and is defined by its relations and functioning within that broader system. They reject reductionism in all its forms. Typically, there is an implication that the epiphenomenon exerts no causal effect on the fundamental phenomena that explain it. This dilemma might be avoided with the complementary approach of reconstructionism which seeks to reconstruct large-scale phenomena from simpler underlying components. For humanists, then, the self is the most essential and unique quality of human beings. The use of case studies in cognitive psych is good as method triangulation using both qual and quan and primary and secondary data removes the reductionist tendency of work which is purely experimental. For example, Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Holism In contrast, holism focuses on systems as a whole rather than individually. Strong supporters of reductionism believe that behavior and mental processes should be explained within the framework of basic sciences e.
There was no improvement, which later revealed to be because her husband had been given an insect nickname. Holistic accounts of the world look for how an entity forms part of some larger whole and is defined by its relations and functioning within that broader system.
The experience of being a human and thus the study of the human mind and behaviour is a complex area and the phrase reductionism refers to the act of breaking a complex phenonema into its constituent parts.
This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts. Thus, while reductionism is inclined to search for the one right answer, holism tries to understand a phenomenon by gaining as many perspectives on it as possible and then synthesizing those perspectives into a more complete understanding. Biopsychology - Explanations for the cause of mental illnesses are often reductionist. A limitation of experimental reductionism is its lack of realism. Source Evaluation of Reductionism An advantage of biological reductionism is that it has led to an increased use of drug therapies. Two complementary reconstructionist approaches may help to provide an integrated theory of planning across these levels of analysis: first, new biologically-plausible models of planning should focus on sequential processes, like the origin of the impetus to form a plan as well as subsequent subgoaling processes; second, converging evidence for these models might be acquired in developmental work by "training" children in the same ways as computational models. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Planning The coordination of thought and behavior to achieve goals is a complex and heterogenous process, involving intentions , foresight , strategy formation , cognitive branching , error-related processing , and other high-level constructs. In other words human behavior has its own properties that are not explicable in terms of the properties of the elements from which it is derived. Breaking complex behaviours into small constituent parts means that they can be scientifically tested and over time explanations based on scientific evidence will emerge. Those individual components may fail to reflect emergent phenomena at higher levels, and may yet themselves emerge from multitudes of constituent elements or processes occurring at yet lower levels of analysis. In addition, biological reductionism has led to the development of biological therapies, such as drugs. In this case, being reductionist is not a valid way of measuring feelings. Downward causation can be understood as an inverse of the reductionist principle: the behavior, structure, and functionality of the elements in the system are determined by the behavior of the whole. Otherwise it makes no sense to try to understand the meaning of anything that anybody might do.
There are emergent properties that cannot be reduced to those of a lower level. Source Evaluation of Holism An advantage of holism is that social behaviour within a group cannot be understood fully when looking at the individual members, rather the group must be studied as a whole.
Yuille and Cutshall found that individuals who had witnessed a real robbery had a more accurate recall of events.
Down-causality can be seen within societies, where individuals create the culture, institutions and norms but then the intuitions feedback to constrain and enable the agents in the social system so that we get a continuous dynamic between the macro and the micro with causality flowing both ways.
This allows researchers to repeat experiments in exactly the same way and to detect stable behavior in the variables that are being observed, which in turn leads to predictable outcomes.
Holistic Psychology Holism refers to any approach that emphasizes the whole rather than their constituent parts.
based on 68 review